The thyroid gland is an organ of the endocrine system that produces hormones that regulate biological processes inside the body. It is located in the front of the neck and secretes 2 important substances — thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). They stimulate the development of bone and nervous tissue, regulate metabolism in the body, as well as breathing and movement, control mental and sexual activity. That’s why, if this organ does not cope with its tasks, the whole body suffers.
In 5-8% of women, symptoms of thyroid disorders appear after the birth of a child due to hormonal imbalance in the body. In many cases, this is the influence of hereditary factors.
Depending on the amount of hormones in the blood, deviations from the norm in the thyroid gland are divided into two groups. If the level of T3 and T4 is low, they talk about hypothyroidism, if high — about hyperthyroidism, or thyrotoxicosis. But these are not diagnoses, but symptoms that occur with diseases of the organ.
In the first case, a woman gets tired quickly, she has swelling, drowsiness, weight increases, the menstrual cycle is disrupted, problems with conception and the course of pregnancy may occur. Hypothyroidism syndrome most often occurs against the background of autoimmune thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland due to malfunctions of the immune system) and after operations on this gland.
In the second case, a rapid heartbeat is felt, excessive nervousness appears, insomnia, the woman begins to lose weight quickly and for no apparent reason. Hyperthyreosis is fraught with the development of heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias.
Such a condition can be caused by diffuse toxic goiter (basal disease), multi-nodular or nodular toxic goiter. Diagnoses mean that nodular formations have appeared in the gland. Sometimes, at the same time, its size increases, which may cause swelling on the neck. Sometimes thyrotoxicosis occurs during pregnancy (gestational thyrotoxicosis) and after childbirth.
The thyroid gland «feeds» on iodine. To make up for the lack of raw materials, the thyroid gland works with increased energy, respectively, hormonal disorders may occur. As a prevention of thyroid diseases, experts advise eating iodized foods and seafood, in particular, iodized salt.