Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the endocrine system in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (type I diabetes) or the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces (type II diabetes, non-insulin-dependent).
Type 2 diabetes has a preliminary stage – prediabetes, when there is already an excess of glucose in the blood, but it has not yet reached critical values at which an appropriate diagnosis is made. If the problem is identified in time, trouble can be avoided.
According to official statistics, there are 4.3 million diabetic patients in Russia. In fact, there are more of them: about half of diabetic patients do not know about their disease.
No one dies from diabetes mellitus, that is, from high glucose levels, now. There are effective drugs that reduce blood sugar levels, portable devices available to everyone to measure this parameter, and the vast majority of people are aware of the symptoms of the disease and, if something bothers them, immediately consult a doctor. Therefore, today the main danger is the complications that diabetes gives. This is a sharp decrease in vision, diseases of the cardiovascular system, lesions of the lower extremities, serious kidney disorders.
Type 2 diabetes is also insidious because it often occurs without specific symptoms. As a result, the diagnosis is made only a few years after its onset, when complications appear.
1. Women who suffered gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy;
2. Women who have had a large baby (body weight more than 4000 g);
3. People with a body mass index of 25-30 kg/m2 and above;
4. People whose waist circumference is greater than 94 cm for men and 80 cm for women;
5. Those who regularly take medications to lower blood pressure;
6. Those who have ever found an elevated blood glucose level;
7. Those whose relatives have or had diabetes mellitus of the first or second type.
How to prevent the disease?
To avoid serious consequences, you need to clearly understand the risk factors and follow the simple recommendations of endocrinologists and doctors of preventive medicine. Special attention should be paid to those who are at risk.
The risk may not be realized if you start to lead a healthy lifestyle:
No smoking. Smoking becomes the culprit or aggravates the complications of all chronic non-communicable diseases;
Eat at least 400 g of vegetables and fruits every day;
Have 30 minutes of intense physical activity a day or do 10-11 thousand steps daily. The last condition is provided by a daily one-hour walk.
Use no more than 5 g of salt per day.
It is reasonable to treat alcohol.
In addition, people at risk are recommended to take a blood sugar test at least once every three years.
A blood sugar test reveals diabetes, but it can not always show that a person is already at risk. In addition, the correctness of its result depends on many nuances. Doctors recommend a more universal and accurate study — a blood test for glycated hemoglobin. Its results are not affected by the time of day, physical activity, or food intake. But since this study is not included in the program of medical examination and preventive examination, you will have to donate blood for a fee. You can do this in any laboratory.