Corns are one of the most common foot problems. Outwardly, they resemble roughened areas of skin that do not have clear outlines. Gradually, the skin cells die off, but they do not fall off, but are compressed into a solid layer. The main reasons for this are the wearing of tight, uncomfortable shoes, in which the weight is distributed incorrectly when walking, and the skin is constantly irritated, and flat feet. It is better not to clean off corns aggressively with pumice stone, and even more so not to cut them with scissors. To choose a way to get rid of corns, it is better to consult a dermatologist who will recommend special softening (keratolytic) agents. They usually contain salicylic acid in different concentrations, vegetable oils, glycerin and help to soften thickening on the skin.
It is important that the treatment does not come into contact with healthy skin. Therefore, first the corns are steamed in an antibacterial bath, then a patch is glued on it, in which a small hole is made according to the size of the corns. That is, in the end, it should turn out so that the corns are completely open, and the skin around it is sealed with a plaster. Then a therapeutic agent is applied to the corns, and it is sealed with a plaster on top for 6-8 hours, after which it is easily removed with a brush or a pedicure grater. Chronic corns are almost always evidence of the development of flat feet, so it would be useful to visit an orthopedic doctor who will select the appropriate method of correction.
One of the frequent reasons for the appearance of various formations on the feet is their deformation. Consult an orthopedic surgeon – and he will help you diagnose and choose the right method of correction.
These skin seals that occur on the toes and heels, unlike corns, have clear rounded borders and, as a rule, are painful.
Calluses can be wet and dry. Liquid accumulates in wet calluses, which signals that the deeper layers of the skin are damaged; sometimes even blood appears. Over time, wet calluses turn into dry ones that have a core. In no case is it necessary to open a wet corn, because it is the liquid that protects the affected area, contributing to gradual healing.
The cause of corns is prolonged friction or pressure on the skin that occurs when wearing tight, rigid shoes or unsuitable socks and tights. Corns are treated using keratolytic agents; in some cases, when suppuration occurs, they have to be surgically removed.
The true cause of plantar warts is the human papillomavirus of the 1st and 4th type. Even if a person is infected, the virus may not manifest in any way, but if the immunity is lowered, and there are microtrauma on the legs (scratches, cuts, calluses), there is a risk of wart formation.
At first, it often does not cause any discomfort and is almost invisible: it is a small seal 2-5 mm in diameter. However, over time, the wart may begin to grow or there may be more of them. The wart increases in size if the skin in the place of its appearance is constantly irritated — for example, you rub it with uncomfortable shoes. Sometimes plantar warts grow up to a centimeter or more, pass to the fingers, the entire sole. The wart itself does not cause harm to health, but as it grows, it can become inflamed, become painful; a person experiences discomfort when walking.
The biggest mistake when a wart appears on the foot is to try to remove it yourself. Steaming and trying to cut out or squeeze out a wart, you can only harm yourself by provoking its growth or adding suppuration to the original problem. The fact is that, unlike the same corns, warts are located not on the surface of the skin, but deep in its layers. And the main task is to remove the root of the wart.
With this problem, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist. He will conduct a dermatoscopy — an examination of the skin with multiple magnification, accurately determine whether it is a wart or something else, and decide whether to remove it. In the case of a good immune response, small warts disappear by themselves. If removal is necessary, one of the methods is used: surgical removal, cryodestruction (using liquid nitrogen), radio wave surgery and laser removal. The method is chosen depending on the specific problem.
Surgical removal is currently rarely performed, because it is very traumatic.
Cryodestruction requires several procedures.
Now specialists increasingly prefer radio wave removal — it is atraumatic, «bloodless», carried out under local anesthesia.
It is very important to conduct a study after removing the wart in order to exclude the possibility of the appearance of malignant formations.
Additionally, antiviral therapy is carried out, which helps the body to reduce the manifestations of the papilloma virus. But it is worth understanding that this is a chronic disease that cannot be cured definitively. Therefore, in order for the warts not to return, it is necessary not only to observe hygiene rules, but also to constantly keep fit and strengthen the immune system.
There are a lot of types of fungus that causes skin lesions on the feet, but the symptoms of infection are the same:
The appearance of red stripes, and then cracks on the skin between the fingers.
Dryness of the skin between the toes, peeling, spreading over time to other areas of the foot.
Burning sensation, painful sensations in the area of the feet.
Thickening of the skin, unhealthy shine.
Discoloration of the skin in places affected by the fungus; as a rule, redness.
Formation of fluid bubbles on the skin of the feet.
If such symptoms appear, you should immediately contact a dermatologist, because the fungus, if left untreated, can spread to other fingers, the entire foot, nails. The appearance of deep cracks increases the possibility of infection. In addition, there is a risk of infection of other family members (through the use of the bathroom, shared slippers, etc.).
Many pathogens are constantly present on the skin, normally they do not manifest themselves in any way, but under certain circumstances they can begin to develop and cause disease. There are several factors that increase the risk of fungal foot diseases:
Prolonged stay of the feet in a humid environment with elevated temperature (as a rule, in people with excessive sweating of the extremities, with constant wetting of shoes).
Long-term wearing of tight shoes made of low-quality materials.
Microtrauma of the foot (cuts, calluses).
The presence of diseases that reduce blood flow in the area of the feet: varicose veins, diabetes mellitus.
Immunodeficiency conditions of the body: with HIV infection or prolonged use of hormonal drugs.
If a foot fungus has appeared, it will not pass without the use of special means, even if all hygiene rules are observed. Modern antifungal agents allow you to cope with the fungus quickly enough — on average it takes about two weeks. It is also important to try, if possible, to eliminate the factors that favor the appearance of the fungus.
At first glance, it seems that calluses or fungus are a local nuisance. In fact, most of the problems with the feet arise due to inattention to oneself, the wrong way of life. As in many other cases, foot diseases are easier to prevent than to treat. As a preventive measure , we can recommend:
A competent choice of shoes:
Shoes should be comfortable; tight, uncomfortable shoes create constant pressure or friction in the foot area. It is worth avoiding shoes with narrowed noses, with a shoe that does not suit you. They say that beauty requires sacrifice, but in fact, even for the sake of fashion, you do not need to endure discomfort: sooner or later it will lead to problems.
If possible, avoid shoes with too high heels: in it, the load on the feet is distributed unevenly and corns and calluses may appear.
Shoes should be made of high-quality materials. Genuine leather is preferable to rigid, stiff leatherette. Now you can choose shoes made of special «breathable» materials that allow the foot to be in comfortable conditions, avoid excessive sweating.